Pre-schoolers who stutter score lower in verbal skills than their non-stuttering peers

Eugen Zaretsky, Benjamin P. Lange, Harald A. Euler, Fiona Robinson, Katrin Neumann

Abstract


Purpose: The study aimed at the examination of a link between stuttering and verbal skills (speech comprehension, articulation, grammar, vocabulary, and phonological short-term memory) in three- to five-year-old children.

Method: Two samples with a total of 7,217 unselected German children were tested with the validated speech and language test Marburger Sprachscreening – revised version (MSSrev).  Linguistic domains were compared for pre-school children who stuttered (CWS; n=110) and those who did not (CWNS; n=7,107) by means of Mann-Whitney U tests, general linear models, Spearman correlations, and cross-tables.  

Results: In both samples, CWS scored lower in grammar, articulation, and overall performance on the MSSrev. Statistically significant associations between stuttering and (a) sex of the child, and (b) language disorders in the family were identified.

Conclusions: Taking into account the effect sizes, there appears to be a weak, but statistically significant link between stuttering and verbal skills.  


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Adagbonyin, S. A. (1996). Niyi Osundare . Ibadan: Humanities Research Centre.

Aiyejina, F. (1988). Recent Nigerian poetry in English: An alter/native tradition. In Y. Ogunbiyi (Ed.), Perspectives on Nigerian literature, 1700 to the present 1. Lagos: Guardian Books.

McPherson, A. (2009). Introduction to macromolecular crystallography. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.

Anyokwu, C. (2006). Tradition and change in the poetry of Niyi Osundare, [PhD Thesis Yaba, Lagos, University of Lagos].

Anyokwu, C. (2013). Looking back is looking forward: Towards a theory of tradition in Niyi Osundare’s Poetry. Transnational Literature 6(1), 1-12. Retrieved on June 13, 2016 from http://fhrc.flinders.edu.au/transnational/home.html

Anyokwu, C. (2015). The essentials of Niyi Osundare’s poetry. Transnational Literature 8(1), 1-11. Retrieved on June 13, 2016 from http://fhrc.flinders.edu.au/transnational/home.html.

Ayinuola, F. I. A. (2013). The natural environment in the selected poems of John Keats and Niyi Osundare: An ecocritical perspective. [Ph D Thesis, Ota, Covenant University, Nigeria].

Bloor, T., & Bloor, M. (2004). The functional analysis of English. Great Britain: Hodder

Bloor, T., & Bloor, M. (2013). The functional analysis of English. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Borden, G. J. & Harris, K. S. (1980). Speech science primer: Physiology, acoustics and perception of speech. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

Bucholtz M, & Hall K. (2005). Identity and interaction: a sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Stud. 7:585– 614.

Bucholtz M. (2010). White kids: Language and white youth identities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Butler, C. S. (1985). Systemic linguistics theory and applications. London: Batsford Acedemic and Educational.

Carter, R. & Nash, W. (2013). Seeing through language. Lexington, KY: Blackwell.

Cassidy, D.; Holton, G. & Rutherford, F. (2002). Understanding physics. New York: Springer-Verlag..

Clark, J. & Yallop, C. (1995). An introduction to phonetics and phonology (2nd ed.).Oxford: Blackwell.

Cook, G. (2001). The Discourse of advertising. New York: Routledge.

Cantrell, C. D. (2000). Modern mathematical methods for physicists and engineers.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Czyżewski, A. & Smędzik-Ambroży, K. (2015). Specialization and diversification of agricultural production in the light of sustainable development. Journal of International Studies, 8(2), 63-73. DOI: 10.14254/2071-8330.2015/8-2/6. Retrieved on April 02, 2017 from

http://www.jois.eu/files/JIS_Vol8_N2_Czyzewski.pdf

Eckert, P. (2012). Three Waves of Variation Study: The Emergence of Meaning in the Study of Sociolinguistic Variation. The Annual Review of Anthropology 41, 87–100. Retrieved on June 17, 2016 from anthro.annualreviews.org

Eckert, P. (2000). Linguistic Variation as Social Practice. Oxford: Blackwell

Eckert, P. (2008). Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12, 453–76.

Edwards W. F. (1991). Sociolinguistic behavior in aDetroit inner-city black neighborhood. Lang.Soc. 21, 93–115

Eggins, S. (2004). Introduction to systemic functional linguistics. London: Continuum.

Elliot, T. S. (1932). Tradition and the individual talent. Selected Essays. London: Faber and Faber.

Fleisch, D. & Kinnaman, L. (2015). A student's guide to waves. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Garuba, H. (2003). Explorations in animist materialism and a reading of the poetry of Niyi Osundare. In A. Na-allah (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on Niyi Osundare. New York: A.W.P.

Glover, B. J. (2007). Understanding flowers and flowering: An integrated approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press

Halliday, M. A K. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Great Britain: Arnold.

Halliday, M. A. K. & Matthiessen M. I. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar. Great Britain: Arnold.

Halliday, M. A. K. & Matthiessen M. I. M. (2014). Halliday’s introduction to functional grammar. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Horn, E. A. (2010). Poetic organization and poetic license in the lyrics of Hank Williams, SR. and Snoop Dogg. [Ph.D Dissertation. Austin, University of Texas]. Retrieved on January 13, 2017 from

https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/ETD-UT-2010-12-2425/HORN-DISSERTATION.pdf?sequence=1

Hyden, G. (1980). Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an uncaptured peasantry. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jeyifo, B. (1983). Introduction’, Songs of the marketplace. Ibadan, Nigeria: New Horn Press.

Johnson, K. (2003). Acoustic and auditory phonetics (Illustrated). Oxford: Blackwell.

King James Bible

Kent, R. D.; & Read, C. (1992). The acoustic analysis of speech. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group.

Knack, R. (1991). Ethnic boundaries in linguistic variation. In P. Eckert (Ed), New ways of analyzing sound change, (pp. 252–72). New York: Academic Press

Kneubühl, Fritz Kurt (1997). Oscillations and waves. New York: Springer.

Labov, W. (1966). The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Labov, W. (2001). Principles of Linguistic Change: Social Factors. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell

Ladefoged, P. (1982). A course in phonetics. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Lundstrom, M. (2000). Fundamentals of carrier transport. Cambridge University Press.

Macaulay, R. K. S. (1977). Language, social class and education: A Glasgow study. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press

Maddieson, I. (1984). Patterns of sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin, J. R. & Rose, C. (2003). Working with discourse: Meaning beyond the clause. London and New York: Continuum.

Mauseth, J. D. (2008). Botany: An introduction to plant biology. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett

Slawinski, M. A. (2003). Seismic waves and rays in elastic media. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Milroy, L. (1980). Language and Social Networks. Oxford: Blackwell

Miracle, M. P. (1968), Subsistence agriculture: Analytical problems and alternative

concepts. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, pp. 292-310.

Schwartz, M.; Bennett, W. R. & Stein, S. (1995). Communication systems and techniques.

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Moore, B. C. J. (1989). An introduction to the psychology of hearing. London: Academic Press.

Myers, G. (1994). Words in ads. London/New York: Arnold.

Norlan, F. (1983). The phonetic basis of speaker recognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O’Saughnessy, D. (1987). Speech communication. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Ogundele, W. (2001). Re-Imagining Genesis: A Review of Osundare’s the word is an egg, Glendora Book Supplement 6, 28-32.

Ostrovsky, L. A & Potapov, A. I. (2002). Modulated waves: Theory and application. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Osundare, N. (1983). Songs of the marketplace. Ibadan: New Horn Press.

Osundare, N. (1984). Village voices. Ibadan: Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers).

Osundare, N. (1986). The eye of the earth . Ibadan : Heinemann Educational Books.

Osundare, N. (1990). Waiting laughters. Lagos: Malthouse Press Limited.

Osundare, N. (2000). The word is an egg. Ibadan: Kraft Books Limited.

Osundare, N. (2002). Yoruba thought, English words: A poet’s journey through the tunnel of two tongues. Thread in the Loom: Essays on African Literature and Culture. New York: A.W.P.

Osundare, N. (2011). City without people: The Katrina poems. Boston: Black Widow Press.

Ozpineci B. (n.d.) Introduction to power electronics: A tutorial. Retrieved on March 02, 2015from

http://www.4thintegrationconference.com/downloads/Basic%20Power%20Electronics%20Concepts_Ozipineci_ORNL.pdf..

Pike, K. (1943). Phonetics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Pike, K. (1959). Language as particle, wave and field. Texas Quarterly 2, 37-54.

Pike, K. L. (1982). Linguistic concepts: An introduction to Tagmemics. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Pingali, P. L. (1997). From subsistence to commercial production systems: The transformation of Asian agriculture. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79(2): 628-634. DOI: Retrieved on April 02, 2017 from https://doi.org/10.2307/1244162

Pisoni, D. B.; & Remez, R. E. (eds.) (2004). The handbook of speech perception. Oxford: Blackwell.

Schneidermann, C. R. (1984). Basic anatomy and physiology in speech and hearing. London: Croom Helm; San Diego: College Hill Press.

Schouten, M. E. H. (ed.) (1987). The psychophysics of speech perception. Dordrech: Martinus Nijhoff.

Silverman, K. E. A. (1984). What causes vowels to have intrinsic fundamental frequency.Cambridge Paper in Phonetics and Experimental Linguistics 3: 1-15.

Sodhi, M. M. (1975). Measurement of the glottal waveform. JASA 57: 228-32.

Stetson, R. H. (1951). Motor phonetics. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Stevens, K. N. (2000). Acoustic phonetics. Current Studies in Linguistics 30. Cambridge,MA: MIT.

Thompson, G. (2004). Introducing functional grammar. Great Britain: Hodder Arnold.

Thompson, G. (2014). Introducing functional grammar. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Trudgill, P. (1974). The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press

Vestargaard, T. & Schroder, K. (1985) The language of advertising. Oxford: Blackwell

Leech, G. (1966). English in advertising: A linguistic study of advertising in Great Britain.

Waters, T. (2007). The persistence of subsistence agriculture: Life beneath the level of the marketplace. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Wicke, J. (1988). Advertising fictions: Literature, advertisements and social reading. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wood, S. (1966). Acoustics. New York: Dober Publications.

Xhignesse, M. A. (2016). The trouble with poetic licence. British Journal of Aesthetics 56 (2),149-161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aesthj/ayv053. Retrieved on May 27, 2017 from https://academic.oup.com/bjaesthetics/article-abstract/56/2/149/2195135/The-Trouble-with-Poetic-Licence?redirectedFrom=PDF

Zhang, Q. (2008). Rhotacization and the Beijing Smooth Operator: The social meaning of a linguistic variable. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12, 201–22.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5750/bjll.v10i0.1171

www.bjll.org