A Global Analysis on 'Gambling, Drinking, And Smoking'

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Chang Boon Patrick Lee


Gambling, drinking, and smoking have often been examined for their relatedness. Researchers have conducted numerous empirical studies to determine whether there are significant relationships among the three activities. The commonly used research approach in prior studies was to collect primary data from individuals or problem gamblers in a particular locality and then used these data to analyze their relationships. The current study examines the same research question but uses a different research method. It analyzes the three activities based on secondary data from several countries. The results of this study reaffirm that gambling is positively related to drinking and smoking. Further analyses of the data also show that each of the three activities is positively related to income, and that gambling has an income elasticity of greater than one, while drinking and smoking have an income elasticity less than one. 

Article Details

Author Biography

Chang Boon Patrick Lee, Faculty of Business Administration University of Macau

Chang Boon Patrick Lee is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Business Admininstration, University of Macao. His research interests include Gaming Operations, Gaming Technologies, and Online Help for Problem Gambling. He has published numerous papers on these topics in research journals and conference proceedings.


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